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J Drug Issues. 2009 Sep;39(4):931-948.

Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Test-Retest Reliability of the Alcohol and Drug Confrontation Scale (ADCS).

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Alcohol Research Group, Public Health Institute 6475 Christie Avenue, Suite 400 Emeryville, CA 94608-1010 Telephone (510) 597-3440 Fax (510) 985-6459 E-Mail:


The addiction field lacks an accepted definition and reliable measure of confrontation. The Alcohol and Drug Confrontation Scale (ADCS) defines confrontation as warnings about the potential consequences of substance use. To assess psychometric properties, 323 individual entering recovery houses in U.S. urban and suburban areas were interviewed between 2003 and 2005 (20% women, 68% white). Analyses included test-retest reliability, confirmatory factor analysis, and measures of internal consistency. Findings support the ADCS as a reliable way of assessing two factors: Internal Support and External intensity. Confrontation was experienced as supportive, accurate and helpful. Additional studies should assess confrontation in different contexts.


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