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Vet Pathol. 2011 Mar;48(2):338-48. doi: 10.1177/0300985810377182. Epub 2010 Aug 4.

Mannheimia haemolytica: bacterial-host interactions in bovine pneumonia.

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Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802, USA.


Mannheimia haemolytica serotype S1 is considered the predominant cause of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis, or shipping fever. Various virulence factors allow M haemolytica to colonize the lungs and establish infection. These virulence factors include leukotoxin (LKT), lipopolysaccharide, adhesins, capsule, outer membrane proteins, and various proteases. The effects of LKT are species specific for ruminants, which stem from its unique interaction with the bovine β2 integrin receptor present on leukocytes. At low concentration, LKT can activate bovine leukocytes to undergo respiratory burst and degranulation and stimulate cytokine release from macrophages and histamine release from mast cells. At higher concentration, LKT induces formation of transmembrane pores and subsequent oncotic cell necrosis. The interaction of LKT with leukocytes is followed by activation of these leukocytes to undergo oxidative burst and release proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukins 1, 6, and 8 and tumor necrosis factor α. Tumor necrosis factor α and other proinflammatory cytokines contribute to the accumulation of leukocytes in the lung. Formation of transmembrane pores and subsequent cytolysis of activated leukocytes possibly cause leakage of products of respiratory burst and other inflammatory mediators into the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma and so give rise to fibrinous and necrotizing lobar pneumonia. The effects of LKT are enhanced by lipopolysaccharide, which is associated with the release of proinflammatory cytokines from the leukocytes, activation of complement and coagulation cascade, and cell cytolysis. Similarly, adhesins, capsule, outer membrane proteins, and proteases assist in pulmonary colonization, evasion of immune response, and establishment of the infection. This review focuses on the roles of these virulence factors in the pathogenesis of shipping fever.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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