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Am J Med Genet A. 2010 Sep;152A(9):2245-53. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33578.

Congenital generalized lipodystrophy, type 4 (CGL4) associated with myopathy due to novel PTRF mutations.

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Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas, USA.


Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by near total absence of body fat since birth with predisposition to insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatic steatosis. Three CGL loci, AGPAT2, BSCL2, and CAV1, have been identified previously. Recently, mutations in polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) were reported in five Japanese patients presenting with myopathy and CGL (CGL4). We report novel PTRF mutations and detailed phenotypes of two male and three female patients with CGL4 belonging to two pedigrees of Mexican origin (CGL7100 and CGL178) and one pedigree of Turkish origin (CGL180). All patients had near total loss of body fat and congenital myopathy manifesting as weakness, percussion-induced muscle mounding, and high serum creatine kinase levels. Four of them had hypertriglyceridemia. Three of them had atlantoaxial instability. Two patients belonging to CGL178 pedigree required surgery for pyloric stenosis in the first month of life. None of them had prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography but both siblings belonging to CGL7100 had exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Three of them had mild acanthosis nigricans but had normal glucose tolerance. Two of them had hepatic steatosis. All patients had novel null mutations in PTRF gene. In conclusion, mutations in PTRF result in a novel phenotype that includes generalized lipodystrophy with mild metabolic derangements, myopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, atlantoaxial instability, and pyloric stenosis. It is unclear how mutations in PTRF, which plays an essential role in formation of caveolae, affect a wide variety of tissues resulting in a variable phenotype.

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