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Heart Rhythm. 2010 Dec;7(12):1817-24. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2010.07.032. Epub 2010 Aug 1.

Distribution of late potentials within infarct scars assessed by ultra high-density mapping.

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UCLA Cardiac Arrhythmia Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1679, USA.



Late potential (LP) electrograms represent areas of slow conduction and are often sites critical to reentrant tachycardia circuits. The distribution of LPs within infarct scar is not known.


The purpose of this study was to delineate infarct heterogeneity using ultra high-density mapping and to determine the location of LPs with respect to scar architecture.


Detailed endocardial (n = 21) and epicardial (n = 8) ultra high-density mapping was performed to delineate the substrate for ventricular tachycardia (VT) in 21 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. LP was defined as a low-voltage electrogram (< 1.5 mV) with distinct onset after the QRS. Very late potentials (vLPs) were classified as LPs with onset > 100 ms after the QRS.


A mean of 787 ± 391 and 810 ± 375 points in the LV endocardium and epicardium were sampled. Multipolar mapping identified heterogeneous islets (HIs) with relatively preserved electrogram amplitudes (≥ 0.51 mv) within dense scar (8.5 ± 4.9/4.5 ± 2.6 HIs per endocardium/epicardium) in all patients. In maps on which putative VT isthmuses were identified (25/29), 57% of vLP were recorded in or adjacent to HI. An LP-targeted ablation strategy combined with pace mapping achieved acute success in all patients (complete success in 52% and partial success in 48%). After 15 ± 7 months, 65% of patients remained free of VT episodes.


Ultra high-density mapping with a multipolar catheter facilitates the delineation of heterogeneous scar architecture at higher resolution. Electrograms within and adjacent to HIs have a higher incidence of vLP, and these sites are frequently critical to reentry. These findings have important implications for substrate-based ablation strategies.

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