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J Cell Biol. 2010 Aug 9;190(3):391-405. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201004152. Epub 2010 Aug 2.

S-glutathionylation activates STIM1 and alters mitochondrial homeostasis.

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Department of Biochemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.


Oxidant stress influences many cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and cell death. A well-recognized link between these processes and oxidant stress is via alterations in Ca(2+) signaling. However, precisely how oxidants influence Ca(2+) signaling remains unclear. Oxidant stress led to a phenotypic shift in Ca(2+) mobilization from an oscillatory to a sustained elevated pattern via calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC)-mediated capacitive Ca(2+) entry, and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1)- and Orai1-deficient cells are resistant to oxidant stress. Functionally, oxidant-induced Ca(2+) entry alters mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling and bioenergetics and triggers cell death. STIM1 is S-glutathionylated at cysteine 56 in response to oxidant stress and evokes constitutive Ca(2+) entry independent of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. These experiments reveal that cysteine 56 is a sensor for oxidant-dependent activation of STIM1 and demonstrate a molecular link between oxidant stress and Ca(2+) signaling via the CRAC channel.

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