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Curr Hypertens Rep. 2010 Oct;12(5):378-83. doi: 10.1007/s11906-010-0135-1.

The impact of obstructive sleep apnea on chronic kidney disease.

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Renal, Electrolyte and Hypertension Division, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important clinical problem in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. OSA is associated with hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, which activates the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, alters cardiovascular hemodynamics, and results in free radical generation. In turn, a variety of deleterious processes such as endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, platelet aggregation, atherosclerosis, and fibrosis are triggered, predisposing individuals to adverse cardiovascular events and likely renal damage. Independent of obesity, OSA is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration and may be an independent predictor of proteinuria, a risk factor for CKD progression. OSA is also associated with hypertension, another important risk factor for CKD progression, particularly proteinuric CKD. OSA may mediate renal damage via several mechanisms, and there is a need to better elucidate the impact of OSA on incident renal disease and CKD progression.

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