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Magn Reson Med. 2010 Dec;64(6):1781-91. doi: 10.1002/mrm.22564. Epub 2010 Jul 27.

Robust EPI Nyquist ghost elimination via spatial and temporal encoding.

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  • 1Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.


Nyquist ghosts are an inherent artifact in echo planar imaging acquisitions. An approach to robustly eliminate Nyquist ghosts is presented that integrates two previous Nyquist ghost correction techniques: temporal domain encoding (phase labeling for additional coordinate encoding: PLACE and spatial domain encoding (phased array ghost elimination: PAGE). Temporal encoding modulates the echo planar imaging acquisition trajectory from frame to frame, enabling one to interleave data to remove inconsistencies that occur between sampling on positive and negative gradient readouts. With PLACE, one can coherently combine the interleaved data to cancel residual Nyquist ghosts. If the level of ghosting varies significantly from image to image, however, the signal cancellation that occurs with PLACE can adversely affect SNR-sensitive applications such as perfusion imaging with arterial spin labeling. This work proposes integrating PLACE into a PAGE-based reconstruction process to yield significantly better Nyquist ghost correction that is more robust than PLACE or PAGE alone. The robustness of this method is demonstrated in the presence of magnetic field drift with an in-vivo arterial spin labeling perfusion experiment.

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