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J Commun Disord. 1991 Apr;24(2):123-34.

Performance of American Indian children with fetal alcohol syndrome on the test of language development.

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Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-2420.


Alcohol is a teratogen known to have deleterious effects on the developing embryo and fetus. Language deficits secondary to central nervous system dysfunction are among the sequelae of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Limited information is available regarding the language deficits associated with FAS, particularly among the population of American Indians in whom FAS is highly prevalent. The TOLD-P and TOLD-I were administered to 27 American Indian children: 10 with FAS and 17 normally developing control subjects. Pure-tone screening, immittance measurement, and vision screening preceded language testing. The older FAS children presented syntactic deficits while the younger FAS subjects presented more global language deficits.

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