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J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Apr;25(4):1089-97. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c69ea1.

Effects of hydraulic-resistance exercise on strength and power in untrained healthy older adults.

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Department of Exercise Gerontology, Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.


The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of hydraulic-resistance exercise (HDRE) in improving strength and power in healthy older adults. Thirty-nine older adults (68.6 ± 4.9 years; 15 men, 24 women) were divided into a training group or control group (CON). Hydraulic-resistance exercise consisted of a 12-week supervised program, 50 min · d(-1), 3 d · wk(-1). Hydraulic-resistance exercise was used for 10 exercises: Chest press and pull, shoulder press and pull, low back flexion and extension squat, leg adduction/abduction, leg press, and elbow extension/flexion. The number of the sets and the hydraulic-resistance dial setting (D) were gradually increased in 3 stages during the 12-week program. Strength, rating of perceived exertion, and relative intensity during exercise increased significantly from stage to stage whereas repetition velocity decreased. Total work was higher in the second stage compared with the first but lower in the final stage because of reduced repetitions. Peak torque at D2 and D11 increased (p < 0.05) for knee extension (58 and 9%) and flexion (94 and 21%), chest press (35 and 12%) and pull (29 and 14%), shoulder press (14 and 18%) and pull (75 and 18%), and low back flexion (59 and 46%) and extension (84 and 34%). Peak power at D2 and D11 also increased (p < 0.05) for knee extension (140 and 26%) and flexion (96 and 36%), chest press (54 and 28%) and pull (62 and 23%), shoulder press (55 and 31%) and pull (159 and 30%), and low back flexion (177 and 127%) and extension (104 and 66%). There were no significant changes in the CON. Hydraulic-resistance exercise elicits significant improvements in strength and power in older adults. Therefore, HDRE is an effective form of resistance training that provides benefits using low and moderate intensity of training for older adults.

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