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Proteomics. 2010 Aug;10(16):2950-60. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200900669.

Shotgun proteome analysis utilising mixed mode (reversed phase-anion exchange chromatography) in conjunction with reversed phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.

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Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, ChELSI Institute, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.


The 2-D peptide separations employing mixed mode reversed phase anion exchange (MM (RP-AX)) HPLC in the first dimension in conjunction with RP chromatography in the second dimension were developed and utilised for shotgun proteome analysis. Compared with strong cation exchange (SCX) typically employed for shotgun proteomic analysis, peptide separations using MM (RP-AX) revealed improved separation efficiency and increased peptide distribution across the elution gradient. In addition, improved sample handling, with no significant reduction in the orthogonality of the peptide separations was observed. The shotgun proteomic analysis of a mammalian nuclear cell lysate revealed additional proteome coverage (2818 versus 1125 unique peptides and 602 versus 238 proteins) using the MM (RP-AX) compared with the traditional SCX hyphenated to RP-LC-MS/MS. The MM analysis resulted in approximately 90% of the unique peptides identified present in only one fraction, with a heterogeneous peptide distribution across all fractions. No clustering of the predominant peptide charge states was observed during the gradient elution. The application of MM (RP-AX) for 2-D LC proteomic studies was also extended in the analysis of iTRAQ-labelled HeLa and cyanobacterial proteomes using nano-flow chromatography interfaced to the MS/MS. We demonstrate MM (RP-AX) HPLC as an alternative approach for shotgun proteomic studies that offers significant advantages over traditional SCX peptide separations.

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