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Addict Behav. 2010 Nov;35(11):1040-3. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.06.021. Epub 2010 Jun 25.

Moderation of gender on smoking and depression in Chinese Americans.

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University of Washington, USA.


This study examined the moderating role of gender in the association between smoking status and depression in a nationwide convenience sample of Chinese American current, former, and never smokers (N=1393). Participants were recruited in smoker-supporter dyads. Multilevel modeling was used to take into account the dyadic nature of the data. Depressive symptoms were measured by a 10-item CES-D (Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale). Results showed significant effects of smoking status by gender interaction and smoking status on depression after adjusting for acculturation and social support. Among Chinese females, current smokers reported elevated depression level than both former and never smokers. Among Chinese males, current smokers reported more depressive symptoms when compared to former smokers only. Chinese females reported higher depression level than males among current smokers; no gender difference in depression was observed among former or never smokers. The association between smoking and depression is moderated by gender among Chinese Americans where substantial gender difference in smoking prevalence exists. Findings highlight the importance of addressing depression in treating tobacco use among Chinese American smokers, especially among females.

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