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J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011 Jan;22(1):49-56. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2010.01859.x.

Ultra high-density multipolar mapping with double ventricular access: a novel technique for ablation of ventricular tachycardia.

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UCLA Cardiac Arrhythmia Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA90095-1679, USA.


Ultra High-Density Multipolar Mapping With Double Ventricular Access. 


Analogous to the use of circular loop catheters to guide ablation around the pulmonary veins, it may be advantageous to use a multipolar catheter in the ventricle for rapid mapping and to guide ablation. We describe a technique using double access into the left ventricle for multipolar electroanatomic mapping and ablation of scar-mediated ventricular tachycardia (VT).


Double access into the left ventricle was obtained via transseptal technique. Endocardial mapping was performed via the first transseptal sheath using a steerable duodecapolar catheter. Higher density mapping was performed in areas of dense scar (<0.5 mV) and border zone (0.5-1.5 mV). All late potentials (LPs) observed on the 20 poles were tagged and pacemapping was performed at these sites for comparison with the clinical or induced VT 12-lead template. If VT was hemodynamically tolerated, entrainment mapping was attempted at sites demonstrating diastolic activity. Ablation was performed through the second transseptal sheath with an open-irrigated catheter at target sites identified by LPs, pacemapping, and/or entrainment on the duodecapolar catheter.


Seventeen patients (88% ischemic cardiomyopathy) underwent electroanatomic mapping and ablation with double transseptal access. The mean number of endocardial mapping points was 819 ± 357 with an average mapping time of 31 ± 7 minutes. The mean number of VTs induced was 2.8 ± 1.6, mean cycle length 418 ms ± 101. LPs were seen in all patients during endocardial mapping with the duodecapolar catheter. Good (56%) and perfect (44%) pacemaps were seen in all patients when performed. Concealed entrainment, guided by the earliest diastolic activity seen on the duodecapolar catheter, was demonstrated in 4 patients (24%). Acute success was achieved in 94% of patients with complete success in 47% and partial success in 47%. The intermediate success rate (free of VT recurrence) was 69%, with an average follow-up of 8 ± 3 months.


Mapping and ablation of scar-mediated VT using a multipolar catheter results in ultra high-density delineation of the left ventricular substrate. A novel double ventricular access strategy has the potential to facilitate identification of LPs, pacemapping, and entrainment mapping.

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