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Ann Biomed Eng. 2011 Jan;39(1):193-204. doi: 10.1007/s10439-010-0128-x. Epub 2010 Jul 23.

Implementation of 3 T lactate-edited 3D 1H MR spectroscopic imaging with flyback echo-planar readout for gliomas patients.

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UCSF/UCB Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.


The purpose of this study was to implement a new lactate-edited 3D 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) sequence at 3 T and demonstrate the feasibility of using this sequence for measuring lactate in patients with gliomas. A 3D PRESS MRSI sequence incorporating shortened, high bandwidth 180° pulses, new dual BASING lactate-editing pulses, high bandwidth very selective suppression (VSS) pulses and a flyback echo-planar readout was implemented at 3 T. Over-prescription factor of PRESS voxels was optimized using phantom to minimize chemical shift artifacts. The lactate-edited flyback sequence was compared with lactate-edited MRSI using conventional elliptical k-space sampling in a phantom and volunteers, and then applied to patients with gliomas. The results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting lactate within a short scan time of 9.5 min in both phantoms and patients. Over-prescription of voxels gave less chemical shift artifacts allowing detection of lactate on the majority of the selected volume. The normalized SNR of brain metabolites using the flyback encoding were comparable to the SNR of brain metabolites using conventional phase encoding MRSI. The specialized lactate-edited 3D MRSI sequence was able to detect lactate in brain tumor patients at 3 T. The implementation of this technique means that brain lactate can be evaluated in a routine clinical setting to study its potential as a marker for prognosis and response to therapy.

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