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Nefrologia. 2010;30(4):435-42. doi: 10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2010.Mar.10288.

[25 hydroxyvitamin D levels and cardiovascular risk in a cohort of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease].

[Article in Spanish]

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Servicio de Nefrología, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria.



Decreased 25 hydroxyvitamin D serum levels have been related to an increase in cardiovascular morbility and mortality in both general population and chronic kidney disease patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between 25 hydroxyvitamin D serum level, cardiovascular risk factors and previous established cardiovascular disease in a group of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.


We performed a cross-sectional observational study in a cohort of 171 stage 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease outpatients seen in our predialysis clinic, mean age 64.16 +/- 13 years, 59.6% were men, 64.3% had diabetes, 47.3% had obesity, 46.8% had previous cardiovascular disease. 25 hydroxyvitamin D and 1-25 dihydroxyvitamin D were measured, we also determined other routine biochemical parameters. All subjects underwent an echocardiogram and 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was also performed.


Mean 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels were 22.1 +/- 13 ng/mL, only 18.7% of the patients had adequate levels, levels were insufficient in 58.5% of the patients and deficient in 22.8% of them. Low 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly related with age, diabetes, female gender, obesity, MDRD glomerular filtration rate and previous cardiovascular disease. Pulse pressure was the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring parameter that was better correlated with 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels. We could not find any association between vitamin D levels and other bone and mineral metabolism parameters. No relationship was seen between low vitamin D levels and left ventricular hypertrophy. On multivariate analysis lower levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D were independently associated with female gender, previous cardiovascular disease, MDRD4-GFR and higher pulse pressure.


Our study confirm a high prevalence of 25 hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in advanced chronic kidney disease patients, this was associated with the presence of cardiovascular risk markers and previous established cardiovascular disease. However we could not see any relationship with left ventricular hypertrophy which is a known predictor of future cardiovascular events in this population.

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