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Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011 May 15;14(10):2013-54. doi: 10.1089/ars.2010.3208. Epub 2010 Oct 28.

Reactive oxygen species in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and memory.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. cmassaad@bcm.edu

Abstract

The brain is a metabolically active organ exhibiting high oxygen consumption and robust production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The large amounts of ROS are kept in check by an elaborate network of antioxidants, which sometimes fail and lead to neuronal oxidative stress. Thus, ROS are typically categorized as neurotoxic molecules and typically exert their detrimental effects via oxidation of essential macromolecules such as enzymes and cytoskeletal proteins. Most importantly, excessive ROS are associated with decreased performance in cognitive function. However, at physiological concentrations, ROS are involved in functional changes necessary for synaptic plasticity and hence, for normal cognitive function. The fine line of role reversal of ROS from good molecules to bad molecules is far from being fully understood. This review focuses on identifying the multiple sources of ROS in the mammalian nervous system and on presenting evidence for the critical and essential role of ROS in synaptic plasticity and memory. The review also shows that the inability to restrain either age- or pathology-related increases in ROS levels leads to opposite, detrimental effects that are involved in impairments in synaptic plasticity and memory function.

PMID:
20649473
PMCID:
PMC3078504
DOI:
10.1089/ars.2010.3208
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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