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Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011 Aug 1;15(3):763-80. doi: 10.1089/ars.2010.3397. Epub 2010 Nov 1.

A comparison of thiol peroxidase mechanisms.

Author information

1
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität and MOLISA GmbH, Magdeburg, Germany. l.flohe@t-online.de

Abstract

Thiol peroxidases comprise glutathione peroxidases (GPx) and peroxiredoxins (Prx). The enzymes of both families reduce hydroperoxides with thiols by enzyme-substitution mechanisms. H(2)O(2) and organic hydroperoxides are reduced by all thiol peroxidases, most efficiently by SecGPxs, whereas fast peroxynitrite reduction is more common in Prxs. Reduction of lipid hydroperoxides is the domain of monomeric GPx4-type enzymes and of some Prxs. The catalysis starts with oxidation of an active-site selenocysteine (U(P)) or cysteine (C(P)). Activation of Cys (Sec) for hydroperoxide reduction in the GPx family is achieved by a typical tetrad composed of Cys (Sec), Asn, Gln, and Trp, whereas a triad of Cys Thr (or Ser) and Arg is the signature of Prx. In many of the CysGPxs and Prxs, a second Cys (C(R)) is required. In these 2-CysGPxs and 2-CysPrxs, the C(P) oxidized to a sulfenic acid forms an intra- or intermolecular disulfide (typical 2-CysPrx) with C(R), before a stepwise regeneration of ground-state enzyme by redoxin-type proteins can proceed. In SecGPxs and sporadically in Prxs, GSH is used as the reductant. Diversity combined with structural variability predestines thiol peroxidases for redox regulation via ROOH sensing and direct or indirect transduction of oxidant signals to specific protein targets.

PMID:
20649470
DOI:
10.1089/ars.2010.3397
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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