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Nat Immunol. 2010 Aug;11(8):647-55. doi: 10.1038/ni.1894. Epub 2010 Jul 20.

Programming dendritic cells to induce T(H)2 and tolerogenic responses.

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Emory Vaccine Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.


A fundamental puzzle in immunology is how the immune system decides what types of immune responses to launch against different stimuli. Although much is known about control of T helper type 1 (T(H)1) and T(H)17 responses, the mechanisms that initiate T(H)2 and T regulatory (T(reg)) responses remain obscure. Emerging studies suggest a fundamental role for the innate immune system, particularly dendritic cells (DCs), in this process. We review these studies, and suggest that the innate control of T(H)2 and T(reg) responses can be viewed as different hierarchies of organization, in which DCs, their innate receptors and signaling networks, and their interactions with other cells and local microenvironments represent different levels of the hierarchy.

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