Send to

Choose Destination
Nicotine Tob Res. 2010 Sep;12(9):919-26. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntq116. Epub 2010 Jul 16.

Smoking and Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory.

Author information

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Geneva, CMU, 1 Rue Michel-Servet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.



Cloninger's neuropsychopharmacological theory identifies four temperament traits and three character traits that are largely heritable and are associated with addictions.


We tested whether these personality traits were associated with smoking behavior and predicted smoking cessation and tobacco withdrawal symptoms. We conducted an Internet cohort study in 2005-2009. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, 226 items, French version) was assessed in 2,993 people (1,593 current, 969 former, and 419 never-smokers). Subsets of participants indicated their smoking status after 30 days (n = 1,452, 48.5%) and answered the TCI again and reported tobacco withdrawal symptoms after 61 days (n = 644, 21.5%).


Compared with never- and former smokers, daily smokers had higher scores of Harm Avoidance (HA) and lower scores of Persistence and Self-Directedness (SD). Daily smokers had higher scores of Novelty Seeking than never-smokers. In daily smokers, the level of tobacco dependence was associated with higher scores of HA and lower scores of SD. In the 60 daily smokers who had stopped smoking after 61 days, after adjustment for tobacco dependence level and baseline tobacco withdrawal ratings, SD predicted lower scores of depressed mood and anxiety at 61-day follow-up and HA predicted higher scores of depressed mood at 61-day follow-up. Personality ratings did not predict smoking cessation at follow-up in daily smokers or relapse in former smokers.


A consistent association was found between smoking and high HA and low SD. Knowledge about these associations may be useful to clinicians to tailor counseling.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center