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Prog Neurobiol. 2010 Nov;92(3):442-62. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2010.07.003. Epub 2010 Jul 16.

Preproglucagon derived peptides GLP-1, GLP-2 and oxyntomodulin in the CNS: role of peripherally secreted and centrally produced peptides.

Author information

1
Gubra ApS, Ridebanevej 12, 1870 Frederiksberg, Denmark. niels@gubra.dk

Abstract

The scientific understanding of preproglucagon derived peptides has provided people with type 2 diabetes with two novel classes of glucose lowering agents, the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists. For the scientists, the novel GLP-1 agonists, and DPP-IV inhibitors have evolved as useful tools to understand the role of the preproglucagon derived peptides in normal physiology and disease. However, the overwhelming interest attracted by GLP-1 analogues as potent incretins has somewhat clouded the efforts to understand the importance of preproglucagon derived peptides in other physiological contexts. In particular, our neurobiological understanding of the preproglucagon expressing neuronal pathways in the central nervous system as well as the degree to which central GLP-1 receptors are targeted by peripherally administered GLP-1 receptor agonists is still fairly limited. The role of GLP-1 as an anorectic neurotransmitter is well recognized, but clarification of the neuronal targets and physiological basis of this response is further warranted, as is the mapping of GLP-1 sensitive neurons involved in a variety of neuroendocrine and behavioral responses. Further recent evidence points to GLP-1 as a central neuropeptide with neuroprotective capabilities potentially mitigating a wide array of neurodegenerative conditions. It is the aim of the present review to summarize our current understanding of preproglucagon derived peptides as neurotransmitters in the central nervous system.

PMID:
20638440
DOI:
10.1016/j.pneurobio.2010.07.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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