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J Eval Clin Pract. 2011 Aug;17(4):794-800. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2753.2010.01478.x. Epub 2010 Jul 13.

Creation and validation of the evidence-based practice confidence scale for health care professionals.

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Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.



Self-efficacy beliefs may provide a means to influence health care professionals' (HCPs) engagement in evidence-based practice (EBP) but no standardized measure of this construct exists.


To create and evaluate the validity and comprehensibility of a scale measuring belief in ability to implement EBP, known as EBP self-efficacy, among HCPs.


Items describing the steps of EBP outlined in the literature were generated. Fourteen content experts reviewed the scale for face and content validity. A purposive sample of 10 HCPs from medicine, nursing, physical and occupational therapy and speech language pathology provided feedback on the clarity and meaning of scale wording in telephone interviews.


Progressive refinement yielded an 11-item self-report scale. Each item describes an activity that is part of the process of implementing EBP, such as formulating a question to guide a literature search and asking your patient or client about his/her needs, values and treatment preferences. To complete the scale, HCPs rate their level of confidence on an 11-point scale ranging from 0% (no confidence) to 100% (completely confident) in their ability to perform each activity. Item-level responses are averaged to obtain a summary score that can range from 0% to 100%.


The newly created scale, named the EPIC (evidence-based practice confidence) scale, provides an opportunity to evaluate HCPs' beliefs in their ability to implement EBP and the effects of interventions on these beliefs. Psychometric evaluation of the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the scale is necessary prior to its widespread use.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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