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Transplantation. 2010 Jul 15;90(1):85-92.

Rhino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis in solid organ transplant recipients.

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Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.



Rhino-orbital-cerebral disease is a significant manifestation of zygomycosis in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, its characteristics and outcome are not well addressed.


SOT recipients with zygomycosis as per the European Organization for Research and Treatment in Cancer and the Mycoses Study Group criteria in a cohort study at our centers published previously and those identified with a PubMed search from the 1950s to November 2009 were studied. Patients with mycosis involving the sinuses, orbits, or central nervous system (CNS) were included.


Patients comprised a total of 90 SOT recipients with rhino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis, including 13 in our cohort and 77 in the literature. CNS disease occurred in 57% (51 of 90). Overall mortality was 52.3% (46 of 88), and the mortality in patients with CNS disease was 73.5% (36 of 49). In logistic regression analysis, older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.21, P=0.002) was associated with a higher mortality rate, whereas lipid formulations of amphotericin B compared with amphotericin B deoxycholate (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.50, P=0.006) and surgery (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01-0.94, P=0.043) were independently associated with an improved survival even when controlled for CNS involvement and the era of diagnosis of disease.


Rhino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis, particularly CNS disease, is associated with substantial mortality rate in SOT recipients. Older age is a significant risk factor for mortality, whereas lipid formulations of amphotericin B and surgery improved outcomes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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