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Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010 Sep;88(1):277-82. doi: 10.1007/s00253-010-2758-1. Epub 2010 Jul 13.

Vacuolar morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the process of wine making and Japanese sake brewing.

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Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Kyoto, 606-8585, Japan.


Although ethanol and osmotic stress affect the vacuolar morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, little information is available about changes in vacuolar morphology during the processes of wine making and Japanese sake (rice wine) brewing. Here, we elucidated changes in the morphology of yeast vacuoles using Zrc1p-GFP, a vacuolar membrane protein, so as to better understand yeast physiology during the brewing process. Wine yeast cells (OC-2 and EC1118) contained highly fragmented vacuoles in the sake mash (moromi) as well as in the grape must. Although sake yeast cells (Kyokai no. 9 and no. 10) also contained highly fragmented vacuoles during the wine-making process, they showed quite a distinct vacuolar morphology during sake brewing. Since the environment surrounding sake yeast cells in the sake mash did not differ much from that surrounding wine yeast cells, the difference in vacuolar morphology during sake brewing between wine yeast and sake yeast was likely caused by innate characters.

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