Send to

Choose Destination
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010 Dec 1;53(4):869-77. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2010.06.013. Epub 2010 Jun 19.

Differential heat stability of amphenicols characterized by structural degradation, mass spectrometry and antimicrobial activity.

Author information

Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, 250-1 Kuo-Kuang Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan.


Heat stability of amphenicols and the relationship between structural degradation and antimicrobial activity after heating has not been well investigated. Florfenicol (FF), thiamphenicol (TAP), and chloramphenicol (CAP) were heated at 100 degrees C in water, salt water, soybean sauce and chicken meat for up to 2h. Degradation and antimicrobial activity of the compounds was evaluated using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with UV-DAD spectrometry, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, and gas chromatography with electron impact ionization mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS). Heat stability of amphenicols in matrices was ranked as water> or =salt water>soybean sauce>meat, suggesting that heat degradation of amphenicols was accelerated in soybean sauce and was not protected in meat. Heat stability by drug and matrices was ranked as FF>TAP=CAP in water, FF=TAP>CAP in salt water, TAP> or =FF=CAP in soybean sauce, and TAP> or =FF=CAP in meat, indicating differential heat stability of amphenicols among the 3 drugs and in different matrices. In accordance with the less than 20% degradation, the MIC against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus did not change after 2h heating in water. A 5-min heating of amphenicols in water by microwave oven generated comparable percentage degradation to boiling in water bath for 30 min to 1h. Both CE and GC-MS analysis showed that heating of FF produced TAP but not FF amine as one of its breakdown products. In conclusion, despite close similarity in structure; amphenicols exhibited differential behavior toward heating degradation in solutions and protein matrices. Although higher degradations of amphenicols were observed in soybean sauce and meat, heating treatment may generate product with antimicrobial activity (FF to TAP), therefore, heating of amphenicol residues in food cannot always be assumed safe.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center