Send to

Choose Destination
J Food Prot. 2010 Jul;73(7):1357-97.

Assessment of food as a source of exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP).

Author information

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Office of Public Health Science, Washington, DC 20250-3700, USA.


The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods assessed the importance of food as a source of exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). MAP is the causative agent of Johne's disease, which affects primarily the small intestine of all ruminants. The significance of MAP as a human pathogen is unknown and is being investigated by several research groups. This document also reviews the efficacy of current detection methods, processing interventions, and MAP inactivation. Research needs related to MAP are provided. The Committee reached the following conclusions: current methods for detection of MAP have significant limitations, and a standard method for the detection of viable MAP cells is needed. Aside from MAP-infected domestic ruminant animals, the organism is found infrequently. If MAP in cattle is controlled, the source of MAP in other animals, food, and water may largely be eliminated. Milk, particularly raw milk, may be a likely food source for human exposure to MAP. Given the prevalence of MAP in U.S. cattle herds, ground beef may be a potential source of MAP. Although humans may be exposed to MAP through a variety of routes, including food and the environment, the frequency and amount of exposure will require additional research.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center