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J Virol. 2010 Sep;84(18):9487-96. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00763-10. Epub 2010 Jul 7.

HIV infection upregulates caveolin 1 expression to restrict virus production.

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Department of Infectious Disease and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.


Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is a major protein of a specific membrane lipid raft known as caveolae. Cav-1 interacts with the gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope, but the role of Cav-1 in HIV replication and pathogenesis is not known. In this report, we demonstrate that HIV infection in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), THP-1 macrophages, and U87-CD4 cells results in a dramatic upregulation of Cav-1 expression mediated by HIV Tat. The activity of p53 is essential for Tat-induced Cav-1 expression, as our findings show enhanced phosphorylation of serine residues at amino acid positions 15 and 46 in the presence of Tat with a resulting Cav-1 upregulation. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) blocked phosphorylation of p53 in the presence of Tat. Infection studies of Cav-1-overexpressing cells reveal a significant reduction of HIV production. Taken together, these results suggest that HIV infection enhances the expression of Cav-1, which subsequently causes virus reduction, suggesting that Cav-1 may contribute to persistent infection in macrophages.

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