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Int J Clin Exp Med. 2010 Jun 10;3(2):169-79.

Epidemiology and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Southern Germany.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) belongs to the most frequent tumors worldwide with an incidence still rising. Patients with cirrhosis are at the highest risk for cancerogenesis and are candidates for surveillance, and here, as well as for the choice of potential forms of treatment, identification of suitable parameters for estimating the prognosis is of high clinical importance. The aim of this study was to describe the etiology of underlying liver disease and to identify predictors of survival in a large single center cohort of HCC patients in Southern Germany. Clinicopathologi-cal characteristics and survival rates of 458 patients (83.6% male; mean age: 62.5+/-11.2 years) consecutively admitted to a University Hospital between 1994 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The results indicate that chronic alcohol abuse was the most common risk factor (57.2%), followed by infection with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV: 10.9% and HCV: 20.5%). Overall median survival was 19.0 months, and higher OKUDA, CHILD and CLIP scores correlated negatively with prognosis. Of these, only the CLIP Score was an independent predictor in multivariate analysis. We conclude that chronic alcohol abuse is frequently associated with HCC in low hepatitis virus endemic areas, such as Germany. Our study suggests the CLIP score as a valuable prognostic marker for patients' survival, particularly of patients with alcohol related HCC.


CLIP score; HCC; epidemiology; hepatocellular carcinoma; survival


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