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Curr Opin Immunol. 2010 Aug;22(4):428-34. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2010.04.010. Epub 2010 Jun 3.

Nod-like receptors: sentinels at host membranes.

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Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.


Innate immune detection of danger signals and microbial motifs is achieved by distinct families of pattern recognition molecules. These include the membrane-anchored Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as well as cytosolic Nod-like receptors (NLRs) and Rig-I-like receptors (RLRs). The precise mode of NLR activation in the host cytosol remains poorly defined, as evidence of direct interaction between NLRs and danger- or microbial-associated molecular patterns remains elusive. However, a number of convergent observations now suggest that activation of some NLRs occurs at the level of host membranes or as a consequence of membrane damage. This review focuses on this emerging theme and discusses the functional consequences of innate immune sensing at the vicinity of the membrane.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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