Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2010 Jul;23(7):726-34. doi: 10.1016/j.echo.2010.04.017. Epub 2010 Jun 3.

Two-dimensional versus transthoracic real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in the evaluation of the mechanisms and sites of atrioventricular valve regurgitation in a congenital heart disease population.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta and Stollery Children's Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.



Data are lacking on the utility of real-time three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (RT3DE) in congenital abnormalities of the atrioventricular (AV) valves. The purpose of this study was to determine whether transthoracic RT3DE is superior to combined transthoracic echocardiography and two-dimensional (2D) transesophageal echocardiography in determining mechanisms and sites of AV valve regurgitation in congenital heart disease.


Between January 2005 and November 2007, 48 consecutive patients were studied prior to AV valve repair (22 left AV valves and 26 tricuspid valves) using 2D transthoracic echocardiography, 2D transesophageal echocardiography, and transthoracic RT3DE. Ages ranged from 24 days to 30 years. The 2D data were reviewed by blinded observers, and the real-time 3D data by a separate observer. In all patients, surgical findings were documented by a surgical report, while in 40, video recordings were also available. Surgical findings were used as the reference standard for structural abnormalities; RT3DE was the reference standard for the site of AV valve regurgitation.


Compared with 2D echocardiography, RT3DE provided superior detail of the mural leaflet and anterior commissural abnormalities for the left AV valve. For the tricuspid valve, improved detection of leaflet abnormalities, prolapse of the anterior and posterior leaflets, and commissural pathology was observed by RT3DE. Apart from a central location, surgical saline testing correlated poorly with jet location on RT3DE.


RT3DE provides complementary information as to the mechanisms and sites of AV valve failure in congenital heart disease.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center