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J AAPOS. 2010 Jun;14(3):211-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2010.02.006.

Longitudinal follow-up of hypermetropic children identified during preschool vision screening.

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1
Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Early childhood hypermetropia is an important risk factor for the development of amblyopia and esotropia. Understanding the natural history of these complications aids in management decisions.

METHODS:

A retrospective observational review was undertaken of 149 patients referred from a preschool photoscreening program who were determined to have hypermetropia of >or=+3.75 D spherical equivalent on criterion standard examination and were treated/followed by one group of academic pediatric ophthalmologists. The prevalence and incidence of accommodative esotropia and amblyopia were determined.

RESULTS:

At presentation 19% of hypermetropic children had amblyopia, 32% had esotropia, and 13% had both. Follow-up data of 108 patients during a mean of 40 months showed that 20 (24%) of 83 initially nonamblyopic patients developed amblyopia and that 22 (33%) of 67 initially nonstrabismic patients developed accommodative esotropia. Of patients initially managed with observation, 38% (6 of 16) developed amblyopia, and 31% (5 of 16) developed accommodative esotropia as compared with 21% (14 of 67) and 33% (17 of 51), respectively, for those given full or partial refractive correction. For patients without amblyopia or strabismus at presentation, only 20% developed amblyopia and 35% esotropia. Strabismic patients responded well to treatment, with no cases developing partially accommodative strabismus requiring surgery during follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this case series we found a high prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus. The results support the importance of early preschool vision screening and spectacle correction of moderate to high hypermetropia (>+3.50 D) to reduce the risk of amblyopia, although more research is needed.

PMID:
20603055
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaapos.2010.02.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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