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Pain. 2010 Sep;150(3):492-500. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2010.06.002. Epub 2010 Jul 3.

The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia for Temporomandibular Disorders (TSK-TMD).

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Department of Oral Kinesiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Research Institute MOVE, University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


For musculoskeletal disorders like low back pain and fibromyalgia, evidence is growing for fear of movement to play an important role in the development of chronic pain. In temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients, however, this construct has not received any attention yet. Therefore, in this paper, (1) a generally used instrument to measure fear of movement, the Dutch version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK), was adapted for its use in TMD patients (and translated for equivalence to English), (2) the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the TSK-TMD were assessed, and (3) the association of various symptoms of TMD (i.e., pain, joint sounds, and limited jaw movements) with fear of movement was evaluated. In a sample of TMD patients (N=301), confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor model based on 12 items provides the best fit of the TSK-TMD, with activity avoidance and somatic focus as its subscales. This two-factor solution of the Dutch TSK-TMD has generally good reliability and convergent validity. Multiple regression analysis showed that TMD functional problems (i.e., temporomandibular joint sounds or a stuck/locked feeling) were more strongly associated with fear of movement than with pain. This finding leads to new perspectives regarding the interplay between musculoskeletal complaints, cognition, and avoidance behavior. The results provide a basis for use of the 12-item version for routine assessment of fear of movement in TMD patients, and for future clinical studies, for example, to the role of fear of movement in TMD-treatment success.

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