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Arch Iran Med. 2010 Jul;13(4):318-23. doi: 010134/AIM.0012.

Prevalence and correlates of co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus in male injection drug users in Iran.

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Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



Aim of the study was to evaluate the HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection and associated risk behaviors among Injection Drug Users in Detention, Tehran, Iran.


A cross-sectional survey included 499 male Injection Drug Users arrested by police during a predetermined police sweep in Tehran (February, 2006). At the temporary detention center, they were screened using a urine test and a physical examination for injection marks. Those who were identified as injectors were sent to the rehabilitation center for 3 months. A questionnaire was filled out for each individual by interview. Blood specimens were collected for HIV and HCV testing. The variables associated with HIV/HCV coinfection at a significance level of P<0.10 were considered in multivariate analysis.


Of the 417 participants, 100 (24.0%) had HIV/HCV coinfection (95%CI 19.9 - 28.4). Factors independently associated with HIV/HCV coinfection included history of using opioid in jail, and age (P<0.05). There were not any association between other demographic characteristics (marital status, birthplace, residence, and education), type and years of drug abuse, age of first injection, years of injection, sharing needles inside and outside of jail, injection in jail, history of tattooing, any sexual behavior, and history of sexually transmitted diseases with HIV/HCV coinfection (P>0.05).


This study supports that incarceration is contributing to the increased spread of HIV/HCV coinfection. So, there is urgent need for effective harm reduction programs, particularly among incarcerated Injection Drug Users.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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