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J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010 Jul;92(7):1006-12. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.92B7.24201.

Removal of deep extremity implants in children.

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Shriners Hospital, 950 West Faris Road, Greenville, SC 29605, USA.


We have reviewed our experience of the removal of deep extremity orthopaedic implants in children to establish the nature, rate and risk of complications associated with this procedure. A retrospective review was performed of 801 children who had 1223 implants inserted and subsequently removed over a period of 17 years. Bivariate analysis of possible predictors including clinical factors, complications associated with implant insertion and indications for removal and the complications encountered at removal was performed. A logistical regression model was then constructed using those predictors which were significantly associated with surgical complications from the bivariate analyses. Odds ratios estimated in the logistical regression models were converted to risk ratios. The overall rate of complications after removal of the implant was 12.5% (100 complications in 801 patients), with 48 (6.0%) major and 52 (6.5%) minor. Children with a complication after insertion of the initial implant or with a non-elective indication for removal, a neuromuscular disease associated with a seizure disorder or a neuromuscular disease in those unable to walk, had a significantly greater chance of having a major complication after removal of the implant. Children with all four of these predictors were 14.6 times more likely to have a major complication.

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