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Vet J. 2011 Jun;188(3):346-51. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.05.025. Epub 2010 Jul 1.

Long term follow-up of dogs diagnosed with leishmaniosis (clinical stage II) and treated with meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol.

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Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery and Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.


Twenty-three dogs with a diagnosis of leishmaniosis (clinical stage II) were treated with meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol and were followed up for 2-9 years. The treatment showed efficacy and the clinical condition of the dogs improved markedly in the first 3 months of treatment. Anti-Leishmania antibody titres declined slowly although most dogs remained seropositive 1 year after beginning treatment. Inter-individual variability in the evolution of the titres was very high. The dogs presented with three types of complications during the follow-up period. (1) Three dogs experienced relapses characterized by clinical signs, high anti-Leishmania titres and high parasitaemia. (2) Eight dogs presented immune-mediated lesions, such as uveitis, arthritis and cutaneous vasculitis; in all of these cases, the dogs had high titres of anti-Leishmania antibodies at diagnosis and during follow-up. (3) Three dogs presented xanthine urolithiasis most likely due to the allopurinol treatment. In one case the xanthine uroliths led to hydronephrosis and nephrectomy. The study demonstrated a long survival for dogs with leishmaniosis treated with the combination of meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol. Clinicians should pay special attention to the appearance of immune-mediated lesions, especially in dogs with sustained high antibody titres, and to urolithiasis.

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