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Inflamm Res. 2010 Oct;59(10):791-808. doi: 10.1007/s00011-010-0208-2. Epub 2010 Jul 1.

Important aspects of Toll-like receptors, ligands and their signaling pathways.

Author information

1
Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. chang_zong_liang@hotmail.com

Abstract

Due to the rapid increase of new information on the multiple roles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), this paper reviews several main properties of TLRs and their ligands and signaling pathways. The investigation of pathogen infections in knockout mice suggests that specific TLRs play a key role in the activation of immune responses. Although the investigation of TLR biology is just beginning, a number of important findings are emerging. This review focuses on the following seven aspects of this emerging field: (a) a history of TLR and ligand studies; (b) the molecular basis of recognition by TLRs: TLR structures, pathogen-associated molecular pattern binding sites, TLR locations and functional responses; (c) cell types in TLR expression; (d) an overview of TLRs and their ligands: expression and ligands of cell-surface TLRs and of intracellular TLRs; (e) TLR-signaling pathways; (f) discussion: TLRs control of innate and adaptive systems; the trafficking of intracellular TLRs to endolysosomes; investigation of TLRs in regulating microRNA; investigation of crystal structure of TLRs with ligand binding; incidence of infectious diseases associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR genes; risk of cancer related to SNPs in TLR genes; TLR-ligand mediated anti-cancer effects; and TLR-ligand induced chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis; and (g) conclusions.

PMID:
20593217
DOI:
10.1007/s00011-010-0208-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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