Send to

Choose Destination
Inflamm Res. 2010 Oct;59(10):791-808. doi: 10.1007/s00011-010-0208-2. Epub 2010 Jul 1.

Important aspects of Toll-like receptors, ligands and their signaling pathways.

Author information

Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.


Due to the rapid increase of new information on the multiple roles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), this paper reviews several main properties of TLRs and their ligands and signaling pathways. The investigation of pathogen infections in knockout mice suggests that specific TLRs play a key role in the activation of immune responses. Although the investigation of TLR biology is just beginning, a number of important findings are emerging. This review focuses on the following seven aspects of this emerging field: (a) a history of TLR and ligand studies; (b) the molecular basis of recognition by TLRs: TLR structures, pathogen-associated molecular pattern binding sites, TLR locations and functional responses; (c) cell types in TLR expression; (d) an overview of TLRs and their ligands: expression and ligands of cell-surface TLRs and of intracellular TLRs; (e) TLR-signaling pathways; (f) discussion: TLRs control of innate and adaptive systems; the trafficking of intracellular TLRs to endolysosomes; investigation of TLRs in regulating microRNA; investigation of crystal structure of TLRs with ligand binding; incidence of infectious diseases associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR genes; risk of cancer related to SNPs in TLR genes; TLR-ligand mediated anti-cancer effects; and TLR-ligand induced chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis; and (g) conclusions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center