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Ann Biomed Eng. 2010 Dec;38(12):3674-87. doi: 10.1007/s10439-010-0107-2. Epub 2010 Jun 30.

Right ventricular inefficiency in repaired tetralogy of Fallot: proof of concept for energy calculations from cardiac MRI data.

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  • 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.


Repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) patients develop right ventricular (RV) dilatation and dysfunction. To prevent their demise, pulmonary valve replacement is necessary, though appropriate timing for it is challenged by a paucity of reliable diagnostic parameters. In this pilot study, we hypothesized that stroke work (SW) and energy calculations would delineate the inefficiency of RV performance in rTOF. RV SW was calculated for both an rTOF and a normal subject by utilizing RV pressure and volume measurements obtained during cardiac catheterization and MRI studies. Energy transfer rate and ratio were computed at the main pulmonary artery (PA). Compared to the normal RV, the rTOF RV had higher operating pressure, lower computed SW (0.078 J vs. 0.115 J for normal), and higher negative energy transfer at the PA (0.044 J vs. 0.002 J for normal). Furthermore, the energy transfer ratio was nearly twice as high for the normal RV (1.06) as for the rTOF RV (0.56). RV SW and energy transfer ratio delineate important operational efficiency differences in blood flow from the RV to the PA between rTOF and normal subjects. Our pilot data suggest that the rTOF RV is significantly less efficient than normal.

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