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Thromb Haemost. 2010 Aug;104(2):366-75. doi: 10.1160/TH09-09-0672. Epub 2010 Jun 29.

Thrombogenesis with continuous blood flow in the inferior vena cava. A novel mouse model.

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Department of Surgery, Section of Vascular Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0654, USA.


Several rodent models have been used to study deep venous thrombosis (DVT). However, a model that generates consistent venous thrombi in the presence of continuous blood flow, to evaluate therapeutic agents for DVT, is not available. Mice used in the present study were wild-type C57BL/6 (WT), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) knock out (KO) and Delta Cytoplasmic Tail (DCT). An electrolytic inferior vena cava (IVC) model (EIM) was used. A 25G stainless-steel needle, attached to a silver coated copper wire electrode (anode), was inserted into the exposed caudal IVC. Another electrode (cathode) was placed subcutaneously. A current of 250 muAmps over 15 minutes was applied. Ultrasound imaging was used to demonstrate the presence of IVC blood flow. Analyses included measurement of plasma soluble P-selectin (sP-Sel), thrombus weight (TW), vein wall morphometrics, P-selectin and Von Willebrand factor (vWF) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM); and the effect of enoxaparin on TW was evaluated. A current of 250 muAmps over 15 minutes consistently promoted thrombus formation in the IVC. Plasma sP-Sel was decreased in PAI-1 KO and increased in DCT vs. WT (WT/PAI-1: p=0.003, WT/DCT: p=0.0002). Endothelial activation was demonstrated by SEM, TEM, P-selectin and vWF immunohistochemistry and confirmed by inflammatory cell counts. Ultrasound imaging demonstrated thrombus formation in the presence of blood flow. Enoxaparin significantly reduced the thrombus size by 61% in this model. This EIM closely mimics clinical venous disease and can be used to study endothelial cell activation, leukocyte migration, thrombogenesis and therapeutic applications in the presence of blood flow.

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