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Opt Express. 2010 May 10;18(10):10538-50. doi: 10.1364/OE.18.010538.

Measurement of the ratio of forward-propagating to back-propagating second harmonic signal using a single objective.

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  • 1Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA.


In this paper, we present a method to determine, for the first time, the ratio of forward-propagating second harmonic (SHG) signal to back-propagating SHG signal (F/B) in vivo on the surface of intact tissue samples without any biopsy or tissue sectioning, using only epidetection (i.e., via a single objective lens). This method has the additional benefit of using the confocal detection apparatus already contained within common commercially available two-photon laser-scanning microscopes, and hence can allow the measurement of the SHG F/B ratio in vivo with minimal purchase of new equipment.

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