Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Surg Endosc. 2011 Jan;25(1):207-16. doi: 10.1007/s00464-010-1161-4. Epub 2010 Jun 29.

Measuring learning gain during a one-day introductory bronchoscopy course.

Author information

  • 1Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California, 333 City Drive West, Suite 400, Orange, CA 92868, USA.



Rigorous assessment of medical knowledge and technical skill inspires learning, reinforces confidence, and reassures the public. Identifying curricular effectiveness using objective measures of learning is therefore crucial for competency-oriented program development in a learner-centric educational environment. The aim of this study was to determine whether various measures of learning, including class-average normalized gain, can be used to assess the effectiveness of a one-day introductory bronchoscopy course curriculum.


We conducted a quasi-experimental one-group pre-test/post-test study at the University of California, Irvine. The group comprised 24 first-year pulmonary and critical care trainees from eight training institutions in southern California. Class-average normalized gain, single-student normalized gain, absolute gain, and relative gain were used as objective measures of cognitive knowledge and bronchoscopy technical skill learning. A class-average normalized gain of 30% was used to determine curricular effectiveness. Perceived educational value using Likert-scale surveys and post-course questionnaires was determined during and 3 months after course participation.


Mean test scores of cognitive knowledge improved significantly from 48 to 66% (p = 0.043). Absolute gain for the class was 18%, relative gain was 37%, class average normalized gain <g> was 34%, and the average of the single-student normalized gains g(ave) was 29%. Mean test scores of technical skill improved significantly from 43 to 77% (p = 0.017). Absolute gain was 34%, relative gain was 78%, class average normalized gain <g> was 60%, and the average of the single-student normalized gains g(ave) was 59%. Statistically significant improvements in absolute gain were noted in all five elements of technical skill (p < 0.05). Likert-scale surveys, questionnaires, and surveys demonstrated strong perceived educational value.


The effectiveness of a one-day introductory bronchoscopy curriculum was demonstrated using a pre-test/post-test model with calculation of normalized gain and related metrics.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center