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Toxicol Pathol. 2010 Aug;38(5):776-95. doi: 10.1177/0192623310373778. Epub 2010 Jun 28.

Hepatic enzyme induction: histopathology.

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Maronpot Consulting LLC, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.


Hepatic enzyme induction is generally an adaptive response associated with increases in liver weight, induction of gene expression, and morphological changes in hepatocytes. The additive growth and functional demands that initiated the response to hepatic enzyme induction cover a wide range of stimuli including pregnancy and lactation, hormonal fluctuations, dietary constituents, infections associated with acute-phase proteins, as well as responses to exposure to xenobiotics. Common xenobiotic enzyme inducers trigger pathways involving the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). Liver enlargement in response to hepatic enzyme induction is typically associated with hepatocellular hypertrophy and often, transient hepatocyte hyperplasia. The hypertrophy may show a lobular distribution, with the pattern of lobular zonation and severity reflecting species, strain, and sex differences in addition to effects from specific xenobiotics. Toxicity and hepatocarcinogenicity may occur when liver responses exceed adaptive changes or induced enzymes generate toxic metabolites. These undesirable consequences are influenced by the type and dose of xenobiotic and show considerable species differences in susceptibility and severity that need to be understood for assessing the potential effects on human health from similar exposures to specific xenobiotics.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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