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Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010 Nov;22(11):1191-200, e315. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2010.01554.x.

Differential incretin effects of GIP and GLP-1 on gastric emptying, appetite, and insulin-glucose homeostasis.

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Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.



Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are major incretins with important effects on glucoregulatory functions. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of GIP and GLP-1 on gastric emptying and appetite after a mixed meal, and effects on insulin secretion and glucose disposal in humans.


Randomized crossover single-blind study in 17 healthy volunteers receiving GIP (2 or 5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1), n = 8), GLP-1 (0.75 pmol kg(-1) min(-1), n = 9) or NaCl for 180 min with a radionuclide-labeled omelette and fruit punch (370 kcal). Outcome measures were gastric emptying rate, insulinogenic index, hunger, satiety, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption. Blood was analyzed for GIP, GLP-1, glucagon, C-peptide, peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin.


Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide 2 and 5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) decreased gastric half-emptying time from 128.5 ± 34.0 min in controls to 93.3 ± 6.3 and 85.2 ± 11.0 min (P < 0.05). Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide 5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) decreased postprandial glucose (P < 0.001) and insulin (P < 0.05) with increased insulinogenic index. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide had no effects on hunger, desire to eat, satiety or prospective consumption. Glucagon-like peptide-1 0.75 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) increased half-emptying time from 76.6 ± 7.6 min to 329.4 ± 71.6 (P < 0.01). Glucagon-like peptide-1 decreased plasma glucose and insulin (both P < 0.05-0.001), and increased insulinogenic index markedly. Hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption were decreased (P < 0.05), and satiety borderline increased (P < 0.06).


The incretin effect of GIP and GLP-1 differs as GLP-1 exerts a strong glucoregulatory incretin through inhibition of gastric emptying, which GIP does not. Thus, GLP-1 as incretin mimetic may offer unique benefits in terms of weight loss in treatment of type 2 diabetes.

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