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J Heart Valve Dis. 2010 May;19(3):269-77; discussion 278.

Superior results following the Ross procedure in patients with congenital heart disease.

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King Faisal Heart Institute, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.



The Ross procedure is a versatile operation that can be applied for aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), including small infants and those with complex left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. Herein, the clinical outcome is reported following the Ross procedure in patients with CHD at the authors' institution.


The medical records of patients who underwent the Ross procedure for CHD between 1991 and 2007 were reviewed. A competing-risks methodology was used to determine the time-related prevalence and associated factors for three mutually exclusive end states after the Ross procedure, namely death prior to subsequent cardiac reoperation, cardiac reoperation, and survival without subsequent reoperation.


A total of 151 patients (98 males, 53 females) was identified. The median age at the time of surgery was 8.6 years (range: 4 days to 33 years). Previously, 103 patients (68%) had undergone cardiac interventions, and 43 (28%) required LVOT enlargement (modified Ross-Konno procedure). A competing-risk analysis showed that, at 10 years after the Ross procedure, 8% of patients had died without subsequent reoperation, 26% underwent cardiac reoperation, and 66% remained alive without further reoperation. The 10-year freedom from autograft and homograft reoperation was 95% and 71%, respectively. Factors associated with early risk of mortality were age < 1 year and no prior surgical/percutaneous intervention at the time of the Ross procedure. Surgical factors associated with cardiac reoperation were concurrent cardiac surgery and the use of fresh homografts. There were no bleeding or thromboembolic complications, and the 15-year freedom from endocarditis was 95%. Ultimately, 99% of the survivors were in NYHA class I or II.


The Ross procedure remains the authors' procedure of choice for AVR in patients with CHD. Outcomes in infants aged < 1 year may improve with better patient selection and palliative surgical/percutaneous interventions prior to valve replacement. The late survival was excellent and valve-related complications were minimal. The high autograft longevity led to few patients requiring late reoperation for graft replacement.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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