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J Sci Food Agric. 2010 Sep;90(12):2068-73. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.4053.

Effects of roasting and boiling of quinoa, kiwicha and kañiwa on composition and availability of minerals in vitro.

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Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, La Molina, Lima, Perú.



Andean indigenous crops such as quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) and kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule) seeds are good sources of minerals (calcium and iron). Little is known, however, about mineral bioavailability in these grains. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine the iron, calcium and zinc potential availability in raw, roasted and boiled quinoa, kañiwa and kiwicha seeds. Potential availability was estimated by dialyzability.


These seeds are good sources of phenolic compounds and kañiwa of dietary fiber. Their calcium, zinc and iron content is higher than in common cereals. In general, roasting did not significantly affect mineral dialyzability. Conversely, in boiled grains there was an increase in dialyzability of zinc and, in the case of kañiwa, also in iron and calcium dialyzability.


Taking into account the high content of minerals in Andean grains, the potential contribution of these minerals would not differ considerably from that of wheat flour. Further studies are required to research the effect of extrusion on mineral availability in Andean grains.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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