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Trends Immunol. 2010 Jul;31(7):278-87. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2010 Jun 25.

Dual oxidase in mucosal immunity and host-microbe homeostasis.

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Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Science, Department of Life Science, Department of Bioinspired Science, Ewha Woman's University, Seoul 120-750, South Korea.


Mucosal epithelia are in direct contact with microbes, which range from beneficial symbionts to pathogens. Accordingly, hosts must have a conflicting strategy to combat pathogens efficiently while tolerating symbionts. Recent progress has revealed that dual oxidase (DUOX) plays a key role in mucosal immunity in organisms that range from flies to humans. Information from the genetic model of Drosophila has advanced our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of DUOX and its role in mucosal immunity. Further investigations of DUOX regulation in response to symbiotic or non-symbiotic bacteria and the in vivo consequences in host physiology will give a novel insight into the microbe-controlling system of the mucosa.

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