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Appl Opt. 1990 Nov 1;29(31):4583-9. doi: 10.1364/AO.29.004583.

Miniaturized spectrometer employing planar waveguides and grating couplers for chemical analysis.


Polymeric and metal oxide planar waveguides were used to demonstrate the potential of a miniature spectrometer. Multiwavelength light was transmitted through the substrate and coupled into the waveguide through a diffraction grating located at the substrate/waveguide interface. A second diffraction grating spatially dispersed the light propagated through the waveguide into component wavelengths for rapid analysis with a photodiode array detector. These results suggest that planar waveguides can be used to perform attenuated total internal reflection measurements in the visible and near-IR regions for chemical analysis of weak vibrational overtones and combination modes with effective path lengths of several millimeters.

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