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J Periodontal Res. 2010 Dec;45(6):720-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.2010.01292.x.

Anti-phosphorylcholine-opsonized low-density lipoprotein promotes rapid production of proinflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and natural killer cells.

Author information

1
Clinical Research Center for Periodontal Diseases, School of Dentistry, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that periodontal infections increase atherosclerosis risk. Periodontitis patients have elevated levels of anti-phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) reactive not only with numerous periodontal organisms but also with minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL). Dendritic cells (DCs) reside in arterial walls and accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions. The ability of anti-PC to bind mmLDL prompted the hypothesis that opsonized mmLDL would stimulate DCs and enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines that promote atherogenic plaque development.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) were generated using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4, then stimulated with mmLDL or with anti-PC-opsonized mmLDL. The anti-PC effect was determined using flow cytometry, cofocal microscopy and cytokine assays. The production of CD83, IL-12p35 mRNA, IL-12p40 mRNA, IL-12p70 and IL-10 by DCs was monitored.

RESULTS:

Dendritic cells stimulated with mmLDL expressed little CD83 and produced little IL-12p70. However, anti-PC-opsonized mmLDL enhanced DC maturation, as indicated by upregulated CD83 and rapid (≤ 48 h) production of IL-12p70 if a source of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was available. In leukocyte cultures, natural killer (NK) cells rapidly produced IFN-γ (≤ 48 h) when interacting with IL-12-producing DCs activated by anti-PC-opsonized mmLDL. Moreover, IFN-γ promoted DC IL-12 responses that were further augmented when mmLDL was opsonized with anti-PC.

CONCLUSION:

Minimally modified LDL-stimulated DCs and NK cells were mutually stimulatory, with DC IL-12p70 needed by NK cells and with NK cell IFN-γ needed by DCs. Moreover, production of these proinflammatory cytokines was markedly enhanced when LDL was opsonized by anti-PC. In short, the data suggest that the elevated anti-PC levels in periodontitis patients could promote a mechanism that facilitates atherosclerosis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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