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Behav Pharmacol. 2010 Jul;21(4):359-68. doi: 10.1097/FBP.0b013e32833c7cc8.

Withdrawal from chronic exposure to amphetamine, but not nicotine, leads to an immediate and enduring deficit in motivated behavior without affecting social interaction in rats.

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Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0603, USA.


Psychostimulant withdrawal leads to depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia and social dysfunction. We determined the effects of withdrawal from chronic exposure to nicotine (9 mg/kg/day salt, 28 days) or amphetamine (10 mg/kg/day salt, 7 days) on the motivated response for a sucrose reward and on social interaction in rats. Both nicotine and amphetamine exposure increased the motivated response for sucrose. However, only spontaneous amphetamine withdrawal led to an immediate and persistent decrease in motivated behavior, which was not correlated with body weight loss. Social interaction was not affected during withdrawal from either drug. These results indicate that withdrawal from chronic amphetamine exposure leads to an immediate and enduring anhedonic state.

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