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J Affect Disord. 2010 Sep;125(1-3):35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.12.024. Epub 2010 Jun 8.

History of manic and hypomanic episodes and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: 11.5 year follow-up from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, United States.



While several studies have suggested that bipolar disorder may elevate risk of cardiovascular disease, few studies have examined the relationship between mania or hypomania and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to examine history of manic and hypomanic episodes as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) during an 11.5 year follow-up of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Follow-up Study.


All participants were psychiatrically assessed face-to-face based on Diagnostic Interview Schedule in 1981 and 1982 and were categorized as having either history of manic or hypomanic episode (MHE; n=58), major depressive episode only (MDE; n=71) or no mood episode (NME; n=1339). Incident cardiovascular disease (CVD; n=67) was determined by self-report of either myocardial infarction (MI) or congestive heart failure (CHF) in 1993-6.


Compared with NME subjects, the odds ratio for incident CVD among MHE subjects was 2.97 (95% confidence interval: 1.40, 6.34) after adjusting for putative risk factors.


These data suggest that a history of MHE increase the risk of incident CVD among community residents. Recognition of manic symptoms and addressing related CVD risk factors could have long term preventative implications in the development of cardiovascular disease in the community.

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