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Acta Odontol Scand. 2010 Jul;68(4):223-7. doi: 10.3109/00016357.2010.490954.

Root length in the permanent teeth of women with an additional X chromosome (47,XXX females).

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Institute of Dentistry, University of Oulu, Finland. <>



Previous studies have demonstrated differential effects of the X and Y chromosomes on dental development. The expression of sexual dimorphism in terms of tooth size, shape, number and developmental timing has been explained especially by Y chromosome influence. The Y chromosome promotes enamel, crown and root dentin development. The X chromosome has an effect on enamel deposition. The aim of this research is to study the influence of the extra X chromosome on the development of permanent tooth root length.


The study subjects (all of whom were from the Kvantti Dental Research Project) were seven 47,XXX females, five female relatives and 51 and 52 population control men and women, respectively. Measurements were made from panoramic radiographs on available permanent teeth by a digital calliper according to established procedures.


The results showed that the maxillary root lengths of the 47,XXX females were of the same magnitude as those in normal women, but the mandibular root lengths were longer in 47,XXX females than in normal men or women.


Increased enamel thickness in the teeth of 47,XXX females is apparently caused by the active enamel gene in all X chromosomes having no increased influence on crown dentin formation. These results in 47,XXX females indicate an increase in root dentin development, at least in the mandible, which together with the data on crown formation reflects a continuous long-lasting effect of the X chromosome on dental development.

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