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J Infect Dis. 1991 Jul;164(1):67-71.

Human immunodeficiency virus and malaria in a representative sample of childbearing women in Kigali, Rwanda.

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Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco.


In 1986-1987 a consecutive sample of 3702 women presenting to prenatal and pediatric clinics at the only hospital in Kigali, Rwanda, was screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria infection. The prevalence of HIV antibodies was 29%, and that of malaria parasites was 9%. HIV antibodies were more prevalent in women from the urban center than in those from the outskirts (31% vs. 20%, P less than .001), and malaria parasites showed the opposite prevalence pattern (8% vs. 15%, P less than .001); after stratifying by location, there was no association between HIV and the presence or degree of malaria parasitemia. HIV prevalence was 45% in women who had received a blood transfusion between 1980-1985 (before screening of donated blood began), and 28% among the great majority (94%) who had never been transfused. HIV prevalence was 44% in single mothers. 34% in women in common law unions, and 20% in those in legal marriages. These high rates of infection in the general population of Kigali highlight the need to develop effective programs for preventing further spread of sexually transmitted HIV.

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