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Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2010 Jul;21(3):483-90. doi: 10.1016/

Cavernous malformations.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


Cavernous malformations (CMs) are vascular lesions found in the central nervous system (CNS) and throughout the body and have been called cavernomas, cavernous angiomas, and cavernous hemangiomas. This article discusses the epidemiology, natural history, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of children who are found to harbor these lesions. CMs affect children by causing hemorrhage, seizure, focal neurologic deficits, and headache. Diagnosis is best made with magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with multiple lesions should be referred for genetic evaluation and counseling. Individuals with symptomatic, growing, or hemorrhagic malformations should be considered for surgical resection. Close follow-up after diagnosis and treatment is helpful to identify lesion progression or recurrence.

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